Alcoholism is a disease characterized by cravings, loss of control, physical dependence and a need for increasing amounts of alcohol to feel the same intoxicating effects. It typically develops in stages. What stage are you (or your loved one) in?
There are 5 stages of alcoholism:
The first stage is, obviously, experimenting with alcohol. Most people have consumed it before and sometimes people begin to consume it often or in large amounts, many times pushing the limits of what they can handle. At this stage, drinking is primarily social in nature. At this stage, it is good to assess your motivations for drinking. Do you drink to feel better? Do you drink to escape bad feelings or thoughts? Do you drink to reduce anxiety? Do you drink to relieve physical pain? If any of the answers to these questions are “yes,” there is reason to be cautious.
The second stage of alcoholism is an increase in tolerance to the substance. Typically, during this initial phase, a person seeks out alcohol in social situations. Over time, the person notices that it takes more and more alcohol to feel the same effect. The feeling of being buzzed used to only take two beers, for instance, and now it takes six. Then, twelve and so on. Heavier forms of alcohol such as whiskey, vodka, and tequila are taken in the form of shots to get a quicker “fix”. Someone who is likely to become an alcoholic will begin to feel some kind of mental relief from drinking in a social atmosphere. Psychological dependence may develop when this person begins to need to drink in order to do something… such as face a difficult task, have a good time or unwind at the end of the day. A person in this stage may begin to feel guilt about the amount of drinking they are doing, or they may begin to lie about/hide their drinking from others. In this stage, people often find alcohol hard to resist when it is available.
The third stage is characterized by problems resulting from alcohol use. These problems could include relationship issues, legal issues, DUI, problems at work, anxiety or depression when not drinking, etc. The person may become more depressed or anxiety and may start having sleep disturbances. In general, the problem begins to be apparent to friends and family. They may question the individual and meet with defensiveness. The person may find themselves drinking at inappropriate times like when caring for children, at work, or while driving.
The fourth stage of alcoholism is characterized by a dependence on the substance. The person no longer feels in control of when they drink or how much they drink. Their body needs it. Life is centered around alcohol as the top priority even over friends and family. Additionally, when they attempt to go very long without drinking, they experience withdrawal symptoms. The individual may begin to drink alone before going out to parties, gulp drinks and feel some guilt about his or her alcohol consumption. Some physical signs during this stage include a red face, weight gain/loss, and stomach bloating.
Stage five is addiction. There is a physical and psychological dependence. Pleasure is gone. The person drinks out of a feeling of necessity rather than fun. They never go very long without drinking. This is often referred to as a crisis stage because risky behavior such as drinking and driving as well as serious health conditions are likely to result.
An alcoholic in the crisis stage is likely to eventually develop chronic health conditions as a result of the prolonged abuse of the substance. These conditions include liver damage, heart disease, brain damage, malnutrition, and mental disorders. In addition, the risk of suicide is greatly increased due to an increase in depression and anxiety. Additional mental health risks include dementia and paranoia.
Alcoholism at any stage can be treated. Yet, the sooner a person is able to acknowledge the need for help with alcohol dependence, the better his or her chances are for recovery and the easier it is to recover. Much damage associated with alcoholism can be repaired and some is permanent, but recovery and maintenance of sobriety is the key to a better life.
Healthline: Stages of Alcoholism
Written - 2015